Defenders of the Philippines

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Pre-WWII (Philippines)


December 7 Hawaii time December 8 Japanese time

Japanese planes attack military installation in Pearl Harbor.  Ten hours later they attack Clark Field in the Philippines thus starting the Pacific War.

December 9-10
The Japanese land at several points in Northern Luzon while bombing raids continue all over the Philippines.

December 12
The Kimura Detachment, a unit of the Japanese Army consisting of 2,500 men, lands at Legaspi and Albay in South Luzon.

December 19-20

During the night the Japanese land near Davao on Mindano.  The carrier Ryujo is in support and the landing force is made up of 500 men from the 56th Infantry Regiment.

December 23
General Douglas MacArthur orders the evacuation of Manila, the removal of headquarters to the island of Corregidor and the withdrawal of troops to Bataan.

December 24
Japanese troops land at Antimonan, and Mabuan, Quezon.  President Manuel L. Quezon transfers the seat of the Commonwealth Government to Corregidor.

December 25-28
Forces in north Luzon are attacked on their second line of defense  at the Agno River. General MacArthur declares Manila an open city while fighting to the north the Americana forces have now fallen back to their third line running east and west from Paniqui.  The Japanese continue to bomb Manila.

1942 Events

January 9

The first period of Japanese attacks on Bataan begins.

January 13

Japanese attacks on Bataan continue and although they make progress on the east side of the Peninsula they are still held in the west.

January 24

On the Bataan Peninsula the US forces begin withdrawals to a second defense line.

January 30

Japanese pressure on the American positions on Bataan is maintained.  As well as striking against the main defense lines, amphibious landings have been made at various points on the coast.  Amboina, the second largest naval base in  the Dutch East Indies is attacked by the Japanese.

February 6

Japanese reinforcements land on Luzon.  The fighting on Bataan has been severe for a few days.

February 22

General MacArthur is ordered to leave the Philippines and establish his headquarters in Australia.

March 2

Japanese troops land on Mindanao.  Targets on Mindanao, Cebu, and Negros are also bombarded by Japanese warships.

March 11

General MacArthur leaves Luzon with the famous declaration, " I shall return."  On orders from Washington he hands over his command to General Wainwright.

March 24

Japanese artillery and aircraft again attack American positions on Bataan and Corregidor.

April 3

After a lull on the 2nd, the final Japanese assault on Bataan begins. There is a long bombardment before the attach goes in and the exhausted fighters are thrown back.

April 5

The Japanese attacks on Bataan continue.  Mount Samat is taken after heavy fighting in which the US 21st Division loses heavily.  Japanese detachments leave Luzon bound for Cebu Islan.

April 7

The Japanese continue to make gains, particular in the eastern sector of Bataan.  The American and Filipino forces are now behind a line running inland from Limas.  Roosevelt authorizes the commanders to take any necessary steps.  Wainwright withdraws as much of his force as possible to the fortress island of Corregidor in Manila Bay.

April 8

The American resistance on Bataan collapses under the fierce Japanese attacks.  The destruction of equipment is ordered as a preparation for surrender.

April 9

General King unconditionally surrenders US forces on Luzon.  Seventy-five thousand men are captured, 12,000 of them American.  The prisoners are marched to San Fernando, 100 miles away, many thousands dying because of ill-treatment on the way.  This is know as the Bataan Death March.  Fighting continues in isolated areas of Luzon and the other islands with some US and Filipino units operating on a guerilla role.  General Wainwright holds out on Corregidor.

April 10

The Japanese land on Cebu with about 12,000 men.  The small American forces retire inland.

April 16

With resistance on Cebu now being overcome, the Japanese also land 4000 troops on Panay

April 26

Fighting continues on Mindanao where Filipino forces resist the Japanese invaders, who now receive further reinforcements.

April 29

The Japanese forces continue to bombard Corregidor and on Mindanao.  With reinforces strength and air support, they push back the defenders.

May 1

More Japanese forces have landed on Mindanao and fighting is therefore heavy.  Corregidor is bombed and shelled.

May 2

Despite the Japanese buildup on Mindanao, they can only make slow progress with their attacks.

May 3

There are further Japanese landings on Mindanao which cannot be beaten off.

May 4

On Mindanao there is reduced activity, but in Manila Bay the Bombardment of Corregidor becomes more intense.

May 5

Just before midnight the Japanese land on Corregidor.  Most of the gun emplacements on the island have been put out of action by the Japanese bombardment.  Nonetheless, the Japanese lose heavily in the defensive fire before they consolidate their landing.

May 6

General Wainwright on Corregidor surrenders with 15,000 American and Filipino troops.  On Mindanao there are further Japanese attacks.

May 7

General Wainwright, in Japanese custody, broadcasts from Luzon to announce the surrender of Corregidor and invites the remaining US forces in the Philippines to do likewise.  Despite the US losses the campaign has not been an unqualified failure.  General Homma was initially allocated 50 days to complete the campaign, but his crack troops have been in fact campaigning now for five months when they might have been employed elsewhere.  One feature of the struggle has been the loyalty of the Filipinos.  This has been contrary to Japanese expectations and contrasts signifigantly with some of the British Burmese Regiments.

May 8

Arrival of President Manel L Quezon and family in San Francico after escaping from the Philippines by way of Australia.

May 9

The Japanese forces on Mindanao press home their attacks near Dailirig, practically finishing the defender's resistance.

May 10

General Sharp, commanding the remaining American forces, give the order to surrender.  A few small groups keep fighting for a few weeks.


Month of June

Filipino POWS are paroled from Camp O'Donnell.  Many join guerilla forces to fight the Japanese.  American forces are transferred from Camp O'Donnell to Cabanatuan the largest POW camp in the Philippines and the largest POW camp on foreign ground.  An estimated 9000 Americans will pass through Cabanatuan.  In the month of June 503 die in Cabanatuan.

June 2

President Manuel L Quezon addresses the United States House of Representatives on the Pacific War Situation.


786 POWs die in Cabanatuan.

August 3

A truckload of Japanese troops is ambushed in Beunavista, Himalayan, Negros Occidental.  This marks the beginning of guerilla Operations in Negros.

October 1

The first Hellship leaves the Philippines.  The Japanese use unmarked tankers through the duration of the war to transport POWs to slave labor camps in Asia.  Conditions are inhuman.  Thousands of men die.


Club Tsubaki opens.  Club owner, Claire Philips, a suburban housewife from Portland, Oregon goes undercover and is able to discover the information on Japanese activities which she supplies to local guerillas.

December 15

The first day without a death in Cabanatuan.

1943 Events

January 21

An American submarine lands in Southern Negros bringing Major Jesus Villamor, who assumes command of the guerilla forces in Negros and Siquijor Islands

June 19

The KALIBAPI elects twenty members of the preparatory Commission for Philippine Independence (PCPI).  This body is charged with the task of framing a constitution for the Japanese sponsored Republic headed by Dr. Jose P. Laurel.

July 9

First shipment of arms, ammunition, military medical equipment and supplies is unloaded from an American submarine at Bacuyangan, Sipalay, Negros Occidental.

October 14

Inauguration of the Japanese-sponsored Republic of the Philippines with Dr. Jose P. Laurel as President.  The first foreign treaty concluded by the Philippine Republic, the Japan-Phililippine Pact of Alliance providing the political and economic cooperation between Japan and the Philippines, also for military cooperation is signed in Malacanang.

November 12

The U.S. Congress passes Joint Resolution No. 25 extending the terms of  Office of the Vice-President of the Commonwealth until the president of the United States shall have proclaimed the restoration of constitutional processes and the normal functions of the government of the Philippines.


1944 Events

September 9-10

Mindanao--Three groups, twelve carriers in all, from TF 38 attack airfield on the island.  There is little resistance.

September 12-14

The three groups of TF 38 which attacked Mindanao on 9 and 10 September shift their attention to the Visayas or Central Philippine Islands.  On 14 September one group again hits targets on Mindanao.  More than 200 Japanese planes are destroyed in the 2400 missions flown.

September 21-24

Twelve carriers from TF 38 attack targets on Luzon, especially near Manila and Manila Bay on September 21st and 22nd.  On the 23rd there are no attacks, but on September 24 the Visayan islands are hit once again.  In the operations since August 31 TF 38 has destroyed at least 1000 Japanese aircraft and sunk 150 ships of all types.  The Americans have lost 72 aircraft including 18 accidents.

October 11

Two groups of TF38 led by Admirals Cain and Davis carry out a small attack on airfields in the north of Luzon while the remainder of the force is refueling.

October 14-15

On Luzon, the carrier Forces of TG 38.4 send attacks on Aparri Airfield on 14 October and against other targets north of Manila on 14 October.  In the operations of the whole of TF 38 between 10 and 15 October the Japanese have lost about 370 and the Americans less than 150.

October 16-19

The preliminary air attacks and fleet movements for the US landing on Leyte take place.  On 16 October there are attacks by land-based aircraft of Thirteenth and Fifth Air Forces from Biak, San Sapor and Morotai against targets on Mindanao.  The eighteen escort carriers of Admiral and TF Sprague's TG 77.4 also begin operations with attacks on Leyte, Cebu and Mindanao.  These attacks continue on October 17 and are reinforced by the four carriers of Davison's TG 38.4 who attack Luzon.  Also on 17 October mine-sweeping begins on Leyte while the large carriers, now 12 in three groups, still strike at Luzon.  On 19 October the escort carriers maintain their attacks on Leyte.  Fifth Air Force strikes at Mindanao.  The Japanese air forces lose heavily in these operations and in their own, unsuccessful attacks on the American naval squadrons.  On 19 October the remaining unites are concentrated in First Air Fleet under Admiral Onishi's command on Luzon.

October 20

There are US landings on the east coast of Leyte.  All the escort and fleet carriers involved in the preparatory attacks and Fifth Air Force provide air support.  The landing ships and the bombardment and escort groups are form Kinkaids Seventh Fleet and the troops landed are from Krueger's Sixth Army.  Four divisions from two corps are landed.  Sibert's X Corps, 1st Cavalry and 24th Infantry Divisions land slightly to the south of Tacloban and Hodge's XXIV Corps, 96th and 7th Divisions, three battleships as well as cruisers and destroyers.  The cruiser Honolulu is badly damaged by aerial torpedo in these operations.  There is little fighting in the beaches as the defending Japanese 16th Division soon retires to prepared position inland to await reinforcements.  The Americans are therefore able to take Tacloban Airfield, but cannot the beachheads of the two corps.  By nightfall 132,000 men are ashore. General MacArthur, who is in Supreme Command, lands a few hours after the assault troops and broadcasts to the Philippine people recalling his famous promise, "I shall return."

The Japanese have set in train a massive fleet operation, Sho-go, to counter the American landings,.  A carrier force commanded by Admiral Ozawa leaves Japan while other units are assembling at Brunei in North Borneo.

October 21

After a successful battle with Japanese night attacks, the US forces take Dulag airfield and Tacoblan village, but they are still unable to link their bridgeheads.  The ships of Seventh Flett and one group of TF 38 give gunfire and air support.  Two groups of TF38 attack targets on Panay, Cebu, Negros and Masbate.

October 22

On Leyte all the US forces push forward. The most notable gains are by the 7th Division on the right flank who advance toward Abuyog.

October 23

The battles on Leyte continue.  The 1st Cavalry Division attacks northwest from Tacoblan.  In the XXIV Corps sector a tank unit accompanying the 7th Division takes Burauen.

October 24

A small force from 1st Cavalry Division crosses the San Juanico Strait from Tacloban to land on Samar.  Other units from the division advance along the sound side of the strait to Guintiguian.

October 25

In the northeast of Leyte 1st Cavalry Division continues its advance.  To the south, however, some US units are forced to be inactive because of lack of supplies.

October 26

On Leyte, the Japanese positions on Catmon Hill just north of Dulag, are fiercely attacked by the US forces.  The attacks are repulsed but the defenders later retire.  The Japanese garrison on the island receives reinforcements at their base at Ormoc.

October 27

On Leyte, the US 7th Division takes Buri Airfield.

 October 27-30

On 27 October one group of three carriers commanded by Admiral Sherman attacks Japanese shipping around Luzon, sinking two destroyers.  They also send attacks against Luzon Island.  The battleship California is damaged by the Japanese.  On 28 October Davison and Bogan take over and in air operations and ground-attack mission on 28 and 29 October they destroy almost 100 Japanese aircraft for the loss of just 15.  The carrier Intrepid is slightly damaged by a Kamikaze attack.  On 20 October two more carriers are badly hit by suicide attacks as the ships of TF 38 begin to withdraw to Ulithi.

October 28

Around Dagami the US attacks only make slow progress and there are heavy losses.  In the north of the island there is a fierce engagement near Carigari where the advance of 1st Cavalry Division is held up.

October 29

On Leyte, Abuyag, south of Dulag, falls to the US forces.  Elsewhere Catmon Hill is cleared of one or two final pockets of resistance and the advance to Dagami continuer.

October 30

ber Dagami on Leyte is taken by an attacking regiment from the 7th Infantry Division.

The Japanese forces receive reinforcements at their bas at Ormoc on Leyte.  General Suzuki now commands the Thirty-fifth Army which includes the original 16th Division and the newly arrived 30th and 102nd.  In the American advance 7th Division takes Babay.  Offshore one US destroyer is sunk and five badly hit in suicide and conventional bombing attacks.

November 1

The Japanese forces receive 2000 reinforcements at their base at Ormoc on Leyte.  General Suzuki now commands over Thirty-fifth Army which includes the original 16th Division and the newly arrived 30th and 102nd.  In the American advance 7th Division takes Baybay.  Offshore one US destroyer is sunk and five badly hit in suicide and convention attacks.

Novembe4 4

On Leyte there are American advances west of Dagami around the feature known as "Bloody Ridge"

November 5-6

Admiral McCain, who has replaced Mitscher in command of TF 38, leads three groups of the force in attacks on targets on Luzon and the waters nearby.  Among the carriers involved is the new Ticonderoga.  The American lose 25 planes and manage to destroy about 400 of the Japanese force.  One Japanese cruiser is sunk by submarine attack and a second badly damaged and forced to beach.  The US carrier Lexington is badly damaged by Kamikazes.

November 7

On Leyte, the US 96th Division completes the capture of Bloody Ridge wiping out the last Japanese pockets.  Near the north coast at Carigara the American advance is held for the moment.

November 9

Further Japanese reinforcements, 2000 men of 26th Division land at Ormoc on Leyte but the transporting warships are forced to retire before all the supplies are ashore.

November 10

AThe fighting near Carigara is still fierce.  There is a small amphibious move by units of 24th Division west along the north coast from Carigara toward Belen.

November 11

A Japanese convoy is attacked off Ormoc by planes from eight carriers from TF 38.  Four destroyers and one minesweeper are sunk as well as five transports with nearly 10,000 troops.

November 13-14

McCain's carriers once more attack shipping and targets on Luzon especially near Manila.  One cruiser and four destroyers are sunk by the carrier planes.

November 19

McCain's carriers carry out further attacks on Luzon and shipping targets in Manila Bay.  They sink one cruiser and three other vessels.

November 21

On Leyte the US advance by 32nd Division from the north coast is strongly held in the Ormoc Valley.  The 7th Division also begins to try to move toward Ormoc; attacking north around Baybay.

November 25

The US advance is being held in most sectors of Leyte.  One US paratroop unit is advancing in the difficult terrain west of Burauen TG 38.2 and TG 38.3 again attack Luzon and the waters nearby.  Seven American carriers are involved and they sink the cruisers  Kumano and Yusoshima.  In return Kamikaze attacks damage four of the carriers.

November 27

The battleship Colorado and two light cruisers are damaged in suicide attacks in Leyte Gulf.  On Leyte the Japanese attacks around Burauen continue and are reinforced by a small parachute unit.  They come close to taking the Burauen airfield.

November 28

On Leyte there are more Japanese night attacks in all sectors.  The heaviest pressure is at Kilay Ridge in the north and around Buri and Buraen.

November 29

The Japanese attacks continue on Kilay Ridge on Leyte but in fact they lose ground to later US counterattacks.

December 7

Early in the day the US 77th Division (General Bruce) land about a mile south of Ormoc on Leyte.  The Japanese resistance is not particularly fierce.  The escorting naval forces include 12 destroyers, one of which is sunk by a suicide attack.  The US 7th Division which is already attacking north toward Ormoc along the coast, makes good progress in its advance.

December 8

The newly landed 77th Division makes an important advance to within a mile of Ormoc.  In the center of Leyte part of the Japanese 26th Division attacks near Buri but is beaten off.

December 10

Ormoc is taken by the US 77th Division.  Ormoc has been the main Japanese base on the island of Leyte.  The main Japanese forces are now northwest of Ormoc, especially at and near Polompon.

December 14-16

To cover the landings on Mindoro there are intensive attacks on airfields throughout Luzon by planes of TF 38.  Admiral McCain now commands this force and it includes thirteen carriers and eight battleships as well as the usual complement of cruisers and destroyers.  Of the 1670 missions flown all but 250 are by fighters.  The Americans lose 65 planes, the Japanese 170.

December 15

There are US landings at San Augustin on Mindoro.  There is almost no resistance and the forces advance inland up to eight miles.  General Dunckel is in command and his troops include part of the 24th Division and a parachute Regiment.  The naval cover includes three battleships and six escort carriers.  One of the carriers and two destroyers are hit by Kamikazes.

December 16

There is considerable air activity with the Japanese attacking American shipping and the Americans replying with strikes against the Japanese air bases.  On Mindoro the landing force does not attempt an advance but confines itself to construction work on an airstrip and to consolidating the perimeter.

December 18

TF 38 retiring to refuel and replenish  after the recent attacks on Luzon, is caught in a violent typoon along with the units of the fleet train.  Three destroyers are sunk and the damaged ships include three fleet carriers, four escort carriers, four escort carrieres and 11 destroyers.

December 19

The Japanese decide that they can do no more to send reinforcements or supplies to Thirty-fifth Army on Leyte.  The fighting continues north of Ormoc and throughout the northwest of the island.

December 21

The advances of US X Corps and XXIV Corps meet in the center of the Ormoc Valley on Leyte.  There are still various groups of Japanese holding isolated positions in the area.

December 22

On Leyte the main Japanese forces are now near Polompon, and this will be the main American objective for the next few days.

December 25

Part of the US 77th Division is moved by sea from Ormoc to San Juan on the west coast of Leyte north of Palompon.  There is no opposition to the landing.

December 26

A Japanese naval force which has come from Indochina bombards the American beachhead in Mindoro.  There are two cruisers and six destroyers in the attack.  One destroyer is sunk by the an American PT-boat.  This is the last sortie by a Japanese naval force in the Philippines Area.

December 31

There are vicious Japanese counterattacks on several part of the northwest of Leyte, but the American forces beat them off with heavy losses.  Elsewhere on the island the Japanese resistance is all but over.  In the battle for Leyte Japanese casualties have been around 70,000 almost all killed.  The American casualties have been 15,500 dead and wounded.  The US Sixth Army which has fought the battle is now being prepared to move on Luzon and the Eighth Army is taking its place on Leyte.

1945 Events

Jan. 2-8

From 2nd to 5th January the various transport, bombardment and escort carrier groups for the US landings on Luzon leave their bases on Leyte.  There are six battleships, sixteen escort carriers, ten cruisers and many destroyers, landing craft and transports of all kinds.  Several of the cruisers and destroyers are Australian.  From January 3, the American movements are detected by the Japanese and attacks by midget submarines, Kamikaze planes and small surface ships begin.  On January 4th, the escort carrier Ommaney Bay is badly damaged by a Kamikaze and has to be abandoned.  On the 5th, two escort carriers, two cruisers and several smaller ships are damaged.  The cruiser Boise, with General MacArthur aboard has a narrow escape from a torpedo attack.  One Japanese destroyer is sunk by US planes. On January 6, Admiral Oldendorf's battleship groups enter Lingayen Gulf to begin the preliminary bombardment and come under heavy attack.  One minesweeper is sunk and two battleships, four cruisers and six destroyers are damaged.  There are more attacks on the 7th and 8th, but these are less effective, hitting two escort carriers and the cruiser Australia for the second time.  In the night of 7th and 8th of January there is the last surface engagement of the Pacific campaign in which a single attacking Japanese destroyer is sunk by four US ships.

Jan. 6-7

The American fleet carrier groups of TF 38 join the operations by the escort carrier and land-based forces against the Kamikaze airfields on Luzon.  Between 70 and 80 Japanese aircraft are destroyed for the loss of 28.

Jan. 9

Operation Mike 1, the US landings on Luzon at Lingayen Gulf, is begun.  General Swift's I Corps lands from the ships of TF 78 around San Fabian.  The assault units are from 43rd and 6th Infantry Divisions.  General Griswold's XIV Corps land near Lingayen Village.  The assault units are from 37th and 40th Divisions.  The Japanese commander in Luzon is General Yamashita and he has decided not to contest the landing grounds.  The nearest Japanese forces are from the 23rd Division, but they will not intervene in strength the first two days.  There are, however, continued Japanese air attacks in which the battleship Mississippi and two cruisers are hit.  In a night attack by explosive boats several landing craft and transports are damaged.  The American units are from Krueger's Sixth Army and the naval support is commanded by Admiral Kinkaid.  As well as 150,000 men under his direct leadership in the north of the island, Yamashita commands the additional 100,000 men around Manila and to the south.

January 10

The US forces stream ashore on Luzon.  Their beachhead is now several miles wide and deep,

January 11

The US 25th Division and an armored group are landed at Lingayen to reinforce the US bridgehead.  The first serious fighting begins ashore.  There are more Kamikaze attacks on American shipping.  Many smaller craft are damaged.

January 13

The escort carrier Salamwa is badly damaged in a Kamikaze attack.  These are now becoming rare, however, because most of the Kamikaze aircraft have been lost and the rest withdrawn.  Ashore the US bridgehead is steadily being extended.  Damortis is taken.

January 15

On Luzon, the US XIV Corps continues to advance south from the beachhead and has now crossed the River Agno.  The I Corps is attacking north and east but cannot take its objective of Rosario.

January 19

On Luzon the US attacks are now being concentrated to the south of the beachhead with the aim of striking to Manila.  Carmen is taken.  On Mindoro, there is a brief flurry of activity as the Japanese try to slow the advance toward Calapan of the US 21st Infantry.  Filipino guerrillas are active throughout the island in support of the US Forces.

January 21

On Luzon, the US 40th Division takes Tarlac and pushes south toward Clark Field.

January 22

On Luzon, there is heavy fighting in the US 1 Corps sector near Carmen and Rosario.

January 23

Units of Griswold's XIV Corps take Bamban in their continuing southward attacks and reach almost to Clark Field.

January 24

Calapan is taken by the US forces on MIndoro.  Japanese resistance on the island has now been totally overcome except for a few stragglers.  Cabanatuan is taken by the US forces on Luzon.

January 27

The US 32nd Infantry Division lands at Lingayen Gulf to reinforce the American troops there.

January 29

On Luzon, General Hall's XI Corps is landed at San Antonio north of Subic Bay to join the American offensive.  About 30,000 men go ashore on the first day of the landing.  Their task is to advance across the neck of the Bataan Peninsula and clear it of Japanese.

January 30

A US battalion is landed to take Gamble Island in Subic Bay.  To the north XI Corps begins to advance inland quickly and takes Olongapo on Luzon.

January 31

On Luzon, two regiments of General Swing's 11th Airborne Division are land by sea near Nasugbu southwest of Manila.  Admiral Fechteler leads the naval support with a cruiser and eight destroyers.  There is little opposition to the landing.  North of Manila the US advance is still making progress.

February 1

The American advance on all fronts is slowed by fierce Japanese resistance.  I Corps is heavily engaged near Rosario and San Jose while XI Corps is struggling to make more ground across the neck of Bataan Peninsula.

February 3

On Luzon, in the Tagaytay Ridge area the uncommitted regiment of 11th Airborne Division is dropped to help the advance of the other regiments.  The fighting north of Manila also continues.

February 4

On Luzon, advances of 1st Cavalry Division reach the outskirts of Manila from the north while units of 11th Airborne Division approach from the south.  Yamashita has not ordered his forces to defend the city, but the 20,000 Japanese troops under the local naval commander in the city are prepared to fight to the end.

February 5

The US forces close in tighter around Manila.  The XI Corps has completed its attack across the Bataan peninsula.

February 8

The 1st Cavalry Division is heavily engaged in the eastern suburbs of Manila.  The 37th Division is also fighting in the city.

February 9

As well as the fighting in Manila there is an attack on the 11th Airborne Division southeast of the city near Nichols and Nielson Fields.

February 13

US Navy forces begin operations on Manila Bay, clearing minefields and shelling landing grounds.  Corregidor is bombarded.  In the ground fighting the 11th Airborne division takes Cavite and completes the capture of NIchols Field.

February 15

A regiment from XI Corps is landed on the southern tip of Bataan on Luzon to help in the operations of the remainder of the corps.  The fierce fighting in Manila continues.

February 16

Two battalions, one seaborne and one dropped by parachute, land on Corregidor Island in Manila Bay.  The attacking troops landed successfully enough but a bitter struggle soon develops among the tunnels and gun emplacements on the island.  The US troops are quickly reinforced.  Since the battle for Luzon began 3200 tons of bombs have been dropped on Corregidor

February 19-20

There are US landings on the northwest of the island of Samar and the small islands offshor of Dalupiri, Capul, and Biri.  There is some resistance in Biri.

February 21

The US XI Corps completes the capture of the Bataan area of Luzon.  Fighting on Corregidor continues, as does the battle of Manila.

February 23

The US forces attacking in Manila step up their offensive after a fierce bombardment.  The Japanese resistance is not largely confined to the old walled section of the town, the Intramuros, but the fighting there is very fierce.

February 26

The fighting on Corregidor comes to an end.  The US forces find more than 5000 Japanese dead on the tiny island and others have been trapped in collapsed tunnels.  There are 19 prisoners.  US casualties are around 1000.

February 28

There are US landings at Puerton Princessa on Palawan by 8000 men of 41st Infantry Division.  Admiral Fechteler leads a bombardment group of cruisers and destroyers and there is also support from land-based aircraft.  There is little Japanese resistance to the landings.

March 1

The Japanese resistance in Manila is now confined to only a few blocks in the administrative area of the city.  Nearer the landing area of Lingayen Gulf there are renewed efforts but I Corps in the direction of Baguio and north along the coast.

March 3

Japanese resistance in Manila comes to an end after a bitter month-long fight.  The 20,000 defenders have been wiped out and the town devastated.

March 7

There is fighting in the I Corps sector south of San Fernando. South of Manil the XIV Corps is fighting near Balayan Bay and Batangas against the defense lines of the south Luzon Shimbu group of the Japanese forces.

March 10

Most of the 41st US Infantry Division is landed at the southwest of Mindanao near Zambongo. General Doe commands the troops and Admiral Barbey the naval support.  On Luzon fighting continues south of Laguna de Bay where the US forces are still trying to break through to the east.  Organized Japanese resistance of Palawan comes to an end.

March 11

There is some fighting in the Batangas on south of Manila and in the north toward Baguio.

March 16

Part of the US 41st Division lands on Basilan Island.  Here, as on the other small islands, the pattern will be for the US forces to subdue the Japanese in the first few days fighting and then mostly to withdraw, leaving the mopping up to Filipino guerrillas.  Fighting continues along the Shimbu line southeast of Manila and in the I corps sector to the north, especially on the Villa Verde track.

March 18

There are US landings on Panay by 14,000 men of 40th Infantry Division commanded by General Brush in the area near Iloili.  There is little opposition from the Japanese at first.

March 19

In the northward attacks along the west coast I Corp takes Bauang south of San Fernando on Luzon.

March 23

On Luzon, San Fernando is taken by I Corps with help from Filipino guerrillas.

March 26

About 14,000 men commanded by General Arnold and drawn from the units of the American Division land just south of Cebu City.

March 27

Cebu City is taken by the US.

March 29

There are US landings in the island Negros near Bacolod.  The landing force is from 185th Regiment. The Japanese on this island will fight very fiercely.

April 1

General MacNider's 158th Regiment lands at Legaspi in the southeast of Luzon and takes the town and airfield nearby.  There is no Japanese resistance at first.  Elsewhere on Luzon the US forces are beginning to make ground toward the southeast of Manila after hard fighting against General Yokoyama's Shimbu Group. Yamashita's forces in the north of the island have been fighting hard against both regular American units and guerrillas.

April 2

Part of the US 163rd Regiment is landed on Tawitawi in the Sulu Archipelago.

April 3

Part of the US 40th division land on Masbate to help the Filipino guerrillas who have controlled part of it for several days.

April 8

The US forces are reinforced by the landing of a second regiment in the northwest of Negros near Bacolod.

April 9

The 163rd Regiment of the 41st Division lands on Jolo.  There is no Japanese resistance.  Other 41st Division units land on Busuanga in the Calamian group.

April 10

On Luzon the advance of the XIV Corps reaches Lamon Bay and the coastal town of Mauban is captured.

April 11

Units of the Americal Division land on Bohol.

April 13

In Manila Bay US forces land on Fort Drum, "the Concrete Battleship" and begin to pour 5000 gallons of oil fuel into the fortifications.  This is then set on fire and burns for five days eliminating the Japanese garrison. On 16 April a landing on Fort Frank finds it abandoned. This completes the capture of the islands in Manila bay.

April 14

The US XIV Corps continues its advance onto the Bicol Peninsula in the southwest of Luzon.  Calaug is taken.  In the north Luzon ! Corps is still attacking near Baguio, but can only make very slight progress.

April 16

There are US landings in Moro Gulf at Cotabuto.  The Assault units are from 24th Infantry Division from General Sibert's X Corps.  Admiral Noble leads three cruisers and a destroyer force in support.  The US forces which landed at Zamboanga early in March have already cleared a large part of the southwest of the island, but the majority of General Suzuki's Thirty-fifth Army remains in being.  There is no opposition to the new landings at first.

April 19

In the advance of US 1 Corps units in the northwest coast of Luzon Vigan is taken.

April 21

The heavy fighting near Baguio is continuing, with the attacks of the US 37th Division making some gains near the River Irisan and the 33rd Division making ground to the west of the city.

April 22

The US 31st Infantry Division is landed a Moro Gulf.  The 24th Division is already advancing inland and has nearly reached Kabakan.   On Jolo the last Japanese resistance comes to an end as their final strongpoints fall to the US forces.  Some scattered individuals remain at large but they can achieve nothing.

April  23

Units of 37th Division reach the outskirt of Baguio.

April 26

There is a further US landing on Negros, this time by units of the Americal Division in the southwest of the island.  The troops advance well inland before meeting the first Japanese resistance.

April 27

Baguio is taken by the US forces.  Fighting in other areas of the island continues, especially in the Bicol Peninsula.

April 19

General Brush's 185th Regiment lands near Padan Point with support from a destroyer force led by Admiral Struble.  There is little Japanese resistance.

May 2

The XIV Corps units advancing west along the Biscol Peninsula of Luzon link near Naga with units from the Legaspi area who have moved east.  Only mopping up operations remain to  be done in this part of the island.

May 3

Admiral Noble lands 1000 men near Santa Cruz in the Gulf of Davao.  Davao City is taken by 24th Division units.

May 10

Part of the US 40th Division lands in the north of the island at Macalajar Bay .  The landing is successful, but everywhere else on the island on the is heavy fighting between the US and Japanese forces already present.

May 13

After more heavy fighting on Mindanao the Del Monte airfield is taken by units of the US 40th Division.

May 19

In the I Corps sector Japanese resistance ends in the Ipoh Dam area of Luzon.

May 27

Units of of the US I Corps take Santa Fe on Luzon.  There is still heavy fighting in several areas of Mindanao.

June 7

On Luzon forces from US 1 Corps take Bambang and move on northeast toward the Cayagan Valley.  Other units are moving round the coast from the northwest to the north of the island.

June 19

In the Cagayan Valley Hagan falls to the advance of I Corps.

June 23

There is a US paratroop landing near Aparri on the north coast of Luzon at the mouth of the Cagayan River.

June 25

Tuguegarag is captured by the US forces in the Cagayan Valley.  The surviving Japanese units on  the island, about 50,000 strong are now mostly concentrated in the Sierra Madre area to the east of the Cagayan Valley.

June 28

MacArthur announces that the operations in Luzon are over.  It is now five months and 19 days since the invasion.  Although there are still many Japanese on the island who will go on fighting until the end of the war, much of the mopping up will be left to Filipino units aided by US Eighth Army troops, who will take over responsibility for Luzon in addition to their present tasks in the other Philippine islands in order to free Sixth Army to prepare for the invasion of Japan.  Apart from on Luzon the only other significant bodies of Japanese resisting are on Mindanao.

July 5

General MacArthur announces that the Philippines have been completely liberated.

August 6

The first atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima.

August 8

The second atomic bomb is dropped on Nagasaki.

August 15

Emperor Hirohito announces that the Japanese are surrendering. This is VJ Day.

September 2

The Japanese surrender is signed aboard the battleship Missouri in Tokyo Bay.  Foreign Minister Shigemitsu leads the Japanese delegation.  MacArthur accepts the surrender on behalf of all the Allies.  Admiral Nimitz signs for the US and Admiral Fraser for Britain.  There are representatives of all the other Allied nations.  Also present are General Percival and Wainwright who have been Japanese prisoners since they surrendered at Corregidor and Singapore.